Scaling is a conventional procedure involving removal of dental plaque and calculus (scaling or debridement) and then smoothing of the exposed surfaces of the roots, removing cemented or dentine that is impregnated with calculus, toxins, or microorganisms, the etiologic agents that cause inflammation. In simple terms, cleaning the tooth and surrounding gums. Scaling process should be taken up once in 6 months which helps in preventing gum diseases. It is usually done for all ages (from young to old). Even after brushing, brushing small food particles stay in between and irregular surface of tooth left unclean which in later stages form as white bulk also causing the pink gums surrounding tooth to separate from the surface of tooth causing sensitivity when consuming cold and hot food.
Tooth polishing is done post scaling for smoothness of the tooth surface and other restorations. The process is usually carried out by using a special kind of paste that will make the harder surface smooth.